1. Develop questionnaire
A questionnaire used for 360 Degree Feedback typically contains items that are rated on a 4 to 7 point scale. These items may be developed to measure different dimensions of job performance (e.g., communication, teamwork, leadership, initiative, judgment, …). Questionnaires also typically include one or more open-ended questions to solicit written feedback.
Questionnaires typically include from 50 to 100 items. When estimating the amount of time to complete the questionnaire you should estimate about 1 minute per questionnaire item.
If using a printed questionnaire form, you should consider using forms that can be scanned into a computer.
2. Ensure confidentiality of participants
Steps must be taken to ensure the confidentiality of the feedback results. For example, feedback ratings from several subordinates may be combined (averaged) to mask the identity of an individual subordinate. Comments or written answers to questions may be summarized in the results to mask the identity of the author. The confidentiality helps ensure that the results are genuine.
3. Provide training/orientation
Often the feedback process involves use of one or more questionnaires, confidential information, and involvement from many different areas of an organization. Therefore, training and orientation to the feedback process is needed to facilitate a smooth feedback process. During this training/orientation, employees should be informed of what 360 Degree Feedback is and why it is being implemented at your organization. You may want to provide samples of the questionnaire items and/or feedback results.
4. Administer the feedback questionnaire
Distribute questionnaire forms (if using printed copies) with instructions. May want to prepare answers to common questions if other employees will be assisting in the administration. If possible, post the questions and answers to your web site for easy access.
It is important to monitor the progress through the system in order to contact employees who need to complete forms.
Basic data analysis would include averages of ratings. More complicated analyses may include item-analysis and/or factor-analysis. Types of analyses include: Performance Dimension Summary; Summary-Performance vs. Expected; Individual Item Ratings; Item Ratings-Performance vs. Expected (normed); Highest- or Lowest-Rated Items (shows individual’s strengths and weaknesses); Group & Organizational Ranking, and Recommendations for Development.
You may want to analyze the data by organizational division or department to assess group and organizational strengths and weaknesses. This can be used to support or promote training and organizational development.
6. Develop and Distribute Results
Feedback results should be shared with the employee. It should not be mandatory that the employee share the results with their supervisor. However, you may want to make this an optional part of the performance review of the employee.
Most results for an employee will include a comparison of their ratings to the ratings of their supervisor and and average of the ratings from others (peers, customers…). The comparisons may be in the form of numbers or simple bar charts.
You may want to provide individual review sessions or group workshops conducted by a facilitator to help individuals review and understand the results and develop appropriate goals and objectives.